Monday, December 31, 2012


Eruca sativa (syn. E. vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell., Brassica eruca L.), is an edible annual plant, commonly known as salad rocketroquette,rucolarugulacolewort; or, in the United States, where it is very popular, arugula. Salad rocket (arugula) is sometimes conflated with Diplotaxis tenuifolia, the perennial wall rocket, another plant of the Brassicales family, which in the past was used in the same manner. Salad rocket is a species of Eruca native to the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal in the west to Lebanon and Turkey in the east.[1][2] Eruca sativa differs from E. vesicaria in having early deciduous sepals.[3] Some botanists consider it a subspecies of Eruca vesicariaE. vesicaria subsp. sativa.[3] Still others do not differentiate between the two.[4] The Latin adjective sativa in the plant's binomial is derived from satum, the supine of the verb sero,[5] meaning "to sow", indicating that the seeds of the plant were sown in gardens.

Salad rocket grows 20–100 centimetres (8–39 in) in height. The leaves are deeply pinnately lobed with four to ten small lateral lobes and a large terminal lobe. The flowers are 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) in diameter, arranged in a corymb in typicalBrassicaceae fashion; with creamy white petals veined with purple, and with yellow stamens; the sepals are shed soon after the flower opens. The fruit is a siliqua (pod) 12–35 millimetres (0.5–1.4 in) long with an apical beak, and containing several seeds (which are edible). The species has a chromosome number of 2n = 22.[2][3][6]
Vernacular names include salad rocket,[7] garden rocket,[3] or simply rocket (British, Australian, Canadian, South African and New Zealand English),[2] eruca,[2] and arugula (American English). All names ultimately derive from the Latin word eruca, a name for an unspecified plant in the family Brassicaceae, probably a type of cabbage.
Salad rocket has a rich, peppery taste and an exceptionally pungent flavor for a leafy green. It is frequently used in salads, often mixed with other greens in a mesclun. It is also used raw withpasta or meats in northern Italy and in western Slovenia (especially in the Slovenian Istria). In Italy, raw rocket is often added to pizzas just before the baking period ends or immediately afterwards, so that it will not wilt in the heat. It is also used cooked in Puglia, in Southern Italy, to make the pasta dish cavatiéddi, "in which large amounts of coarsely chopped rocket are added to pasta seasoned with a homemade reduced tomato sauce and pecorino",[18] as well as in "many unpretentious recipes in which it is added, chopped, to sauces and cooked dishes" or in a sauce (made by frying it in olive oil and garlic) used a condiment for cold meats and fish.[18] In the Slovenian Littoral, it is often combined with boiled potatoes,[19] used in a soup,[20] or served with the cheese burek, especially in the town of Koper.
A sweet, peppery digestive alcohol called rucolino is made from arugula on the island of Ischia in the Gulf of Naples. This liqueur is a local specialty enjoyed in small quantities following a meal in the same way as a limoncello or grappa.
In Brazil, where its use is widespread, arugula is eaten raw in salads. A popular combination is arugula mixed with mozzarella cheese (normally made out of buffalo milk) and sun-dried tomatoes.
In Egypt the plant is commonly eaten with ful medames for breakfast, and regularly accompanies local seafood dishes.
In West Asia and Northern India, arugula seeds are pressed to make taramira oil, used in pickling and (after aging to remove acridity) as a salad or cooking oil.[21] The seed cake is also used as animal feed.[22]

Revenge is a dish best served warm out of the oven

Urban legend
FWD: Free Neiman-Marcus Cookie Recipe
This is a true story... Please forward it to everyone that you can.... You will have to read it to believe it....

My daughter and I had just finished a salad at Neiman-Marcus Cafe in Dallas & decided to have a small dessert. Because both of us are such cookie lovers, we decided to try the "Neiman-Marcus Cookie". It was so excellent that I asked if they would give me the recipe and the waitress said with a small frown "I'm afraid not." Well" I said, "would you let me buy the recipe?"

With a cute smile, she said YES". I asked how much and she responded, "Only two fifty, it's a great deal!" I said with approval, "just add it to my tab".. Thirty days later, I received my VISA statement from Neiman-Marcus and it was $285.00. I looked again and remembered I had only spent $9.95 for two salads and about $20.00 for a scarf. As I glanced at the bottom of the statement, it said, "Cookie Recipe - $250.00". That's outrageous!!!

I called Neiman's Accounting Dept. and told them that the waitress said it was "two-fifty," which clearly does not mean "two hundred and fifty dollars" by any POSSIBLE interpretation of the phrase. Neiman-Marcus refused to budge.. They would not refund my money, because according to them, "What the waitress told you is not our problem. You have already seen the recipe - we absolutely will not refund your money at this point." I explained to her the criminal statutes which govern fraud in Texas. I threatened to refer them to the Better Business Bureau and the State's Attorney General for engaging in fraud. I was basically told, "Do what you want, we dont give a damn, and we're not refunding your money." I waited a moment, thinking of how I could get even,or even try to get any of my money back. I just said, "Okay, you folks got my $250.00, and now I'm going to have $250.00 worth of fun."

I told her that I was going to see to it that every cookie lover in the United States with an e-mail account has a $250.00 cookie recipe from Neiman-Marcus... for free..She replied, "I wish you wouldn't do this" I said, "Well you should have thought of that before you ripped me off", and slammed down the phone on her.. So, here it is!!! Please, please, please pass it on to everyone you can possibly think of. I paid $250.00 dollars for this... I don't want Neiman-Marcus to ever get another penny off of this recipe....

(Recipe may be halved):
2 cups butter
4 cups flour
2 tsp. baking soda
2 cups granulated sugar
2 cups brown sugar
5 cups blended oatmeal (measure oatmeal and blend in blender to a fine powder)
24 oz. chocolate chips
1 tsp. salt
1 8 oz. Hershey bar (grated)
4 eggs
2 tsp. baking powder
3 cups chopped nuts (your choice)
2 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter and both sugars. Add eggs and vanilla; mix together with flour, oatmeal, salt, baking powder, and soda. Add chocolate chips, Hershey bar and nuts. Roll into balls and place two inches apart on a cookie sheet..Bake for 10 minutes at 375 degrees. Makes 112 cookies.. Have Fun!!!

This is not a joke - this is a true story... Ride free citizens!!!! This isn't some stupid chain letter either.. pass it on.. if you don't, you won't die or get dumped.. you'll just do the world an injustice...


Most Internet users are probably familiar with "The $250 Cookie Recipe" and most recently associated with the Neiman Marcus company, though it was the bane of cookie diva Mrs. Fields during the 1980s.

It isn't actually true. It's a classic urban legend, a variant of a popular tale folklorists have traced as far back as 1948, when the ridiculously expensive recipe yielded a red velvet fudge cake supposedly served at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel (asking price for that recipe at the time: $25).

As for the recipe itself by most accounts it yields damn good ones (and plenty of them). No one knows whose kitchen it came from. Neiman Marcus chefs did create a chocolate chip cookie recipe after the fact, however, which the company now distributes free of charge as an antidote.

A History of the Table Fork

Dennis Sherman/Master Robyyan n'Tor d'Elandris

Many people in the SCA think of the table fork as either "out of period" or "very late period." Often people insist that the only period forks have two tines. Actually, table forks were known and used before the year 1000 in the middle east [Boger, Giblin]. Forks made before 1600 with as many as five tines still exist today. What is the real history of the table fork? Let us see. The fork came to Europe through Italy's nobility in the eleventh century. Throughout the next five hundred years, the table fork spread throughout Europe, and into the lesser social classes. By 1600, the fork was known in England, although rare and viewed as an Italian affectation, while in Italy even the merchant classes were using forks regularly.
We can deduce that forks were not common by looking at various inventories and wills from the Middle Ages. The few forks listed were made of precious materials, and presumably kept primarily for dazzle and ostentation. They may also have been used as investment pieces for the value of the materials used [Bailey]. Some specific examples include:

  • The Will of John Baret of Bury St. Edmunds, 1463: "Itm J. yeve and beqwethe to Davn John Kertelynge my silvir forke for grene gyngor"[Bailey]
  • The Jewelhouse inventory of Henry VIII: "Item one spone wt suckett fork at the end of silver and gilt"[Bailey]
  • Inventory of property left by Henry VII: "Item, one Case wherein are xxi knives and a fork, the hafts being crystal and chalcedony, the ends garnished with gold" [Hayward]
  • "Item, one Case of knives furnished with divers knives and one fork, whereof two be great hafts of silver parcel-gilt, the case covered with crimson velvet" [Hayward].
Forks also appear in an inventory of silverware in Florence, taken in 1361 [Giblin], in inventories of Charles V and Charles VI of France [Bailey], and in Italian cookbooks of the late 1400's [Giblin]. All these references do not mean that forks were common - the fork was known only to the very uppermost classes, and seldom used even among them. A Byzantine princess introduced the table fork to Europe in the eleventh century. The story varies slightly depending on the source, but the essence is that a nobleman, probably Domenico Selvo (or Silvio), heir to the Doge of Venice, married a princess from Byzantium. This Byzantine princess brought a case of two- tined table forks to Venice as part of her luggage. Forks seem to have been novelties in Byzantium, but not unknown. Many examples can be found in Byzantine art, according to Boger and Henisch.
The princess outraged the populace and the clergy by refusing to eat with her hands:

"Instead of eating with her fingers like other people, the princess cuts up her food into small pieces and eats them by means of little golden forks with two prongs."[Giblin] "God in his wisdom has provided man with natural forks - his fingers. Therefore it is an insult to Him to substitute artificial metallic forks for them when eating."[Giblin]
The princess apparently died before very long, of some wasting disease, prompting Peter Damian, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia to write,
"Of the Venetian Doge's wife, whose body, after her excessive delicacy, entirely rotted away"[Henisch]
Other evidence of the fork coming to Europe from the east is given in a letter by a Franciscan monk to Louis IX of France. He discusses the eating habits of the Tartars in the middle of the thirteenth century:
"With the point of a knife or a fork especially made for this purpose - like those with which we are accustomed to eat pears or apples cooked in wine - they offer to each of those standing around one or two mouthfuls."[Henisch]
This fragment of a letter and listings in inventories and wills link the fork with fruits and sweetmeats. We also see the fork was used to eat dishes that included a sticky sauce or that might stain the fingers [Boger, Bailey]. At one time, this practice was primarily that of courtesans, prompting the Church to ban the fork as an immoral influence [Gruber]. The fork would be used to spear a piece of food, lift it from the plate or serving bowl, and shake any excess sauce from it. Then one would pluck the food from the fork using the tips of the fingers and place the morsel in the mouth. The early forks were small, with short straight tines, and therefore probably used only for spearing and holding food, rather than scooping. The curve with which we are familiar in the modern fork was introduced in France in the seventeenth century [Boger.]
Forks were known and used in Spain, at least by the upper classes, by the time of the Armada. A large assortment was recovered from the wreck of La Girona, which sank off the coast of Ireland in 1588. La Girona carried Don Alonso de Leiva and his retinue, who apparently traveled well equipped. Don Alonso is known to have entertained the Duke of Medina Sidonia before the Armada sailed, "in grand style, with musical accompaniment, at his table sumptuously set with silver plate and cutlery and gold-plated candelabra [Flanagan]." This cutlery included a large number of forks, with anywhere from two to five tines. These tines are all straight, as opposed to curved, although the five tined variety appears to be slightly splayed at the points. The many pieces recovered are fragmentary - either tines or handles, but few pieces still joined. The handles include a simple baluster stem with a terminal in the form of a hoof, to elegant handles with terminals in the form of serpents or of human torsos, among others. One wonders what was the purpose of so many different styles of fork.
Thomas Coryat of Odcombe, near Yeovil, in a book titled "Coryat's Curdities Hastily gobbled up in Five Months Travels in France, Savoy, Italy, &c.," published in London, 1611, claims to be one of the first Englishmen to use a fork. We see from his writing that while forks were almost unknown in England, they were common in Italy and not unusual in other parts of Europe.

I observed a custome in all those Italian Cities and Townes through which I passed, that is not used in any other country that I saw in my travels, neither do I thinke that any other nation of Christendome doth use it, but only Italy. The Italian, and also most strangers that are commorant in Italy, doe alwaies, at their meales use a little forke when they cut the meate; for while with their knife, which they hold in one hand, they cut the meate out of the dish, they fasten their forke which they hold in their other hande, upon the same dish, so that whatsoever he be that sitteth in the company of any others at meate, should unadvisedly touch the dish of meate with his fingers, from which all at the table doe cut he will give occasion of offence unto the company as having transgressed the lawes of good manners, insomuch for his error he shall be at least browbeaten, if not reprehended in words. This forme of feeding I understand is generally used in all places of Italy, their forks being for the most part made of yron or steele, and some of silver, but those are used only by gentlemen. The reason of this their curiosity, is because the Italian cannot by any means endure to have his dish touched with fingers, seeing all men's fingers are not alike cleane. Hereupon I myselfe thought good to imitate the Italian fashion by this forked cutting of meate, not only while I was in Italy, but also in Germany, and oftentimes in England, since I came home, being once quipped for that frequent using of my forke by a certain learned gentleman a familiar friend of mine, one Mr. Lawrence Whittaker, who in his merry humour, doubted not to call me at table Furcifer, only for using a forke at feeding but for no other cause.
The humor is, according to Bailey, in the use of "Furcifer" as a pun, meaning fork-bearer, and also gallows-bird. Ben Jonson also used forks as the basis of humor in two of his plays. In "Volpone" (1606), Sir Politick Would-be instructs Peregrine most humorously on correct behavior while in Italy, including "Then must you learn the use and handling of your silver fork at meals." [Act IV Scene I]. And in "The Devil is an Ass" (1616):

MEERCROFT, the projector. Upon my project of the forks . . . SLEDGE. Forks! What be they?
MEERCROFT. The laudable use of forks, brought into custom here as they are in Italy to the sparing of napkins . . .
In a slightly more serious vein, Henisch quotes a letter by one Montaigne, of the late sixteenth century, as follows:
I could dine without a tablecloth, but to dine in the German fashion, without a clean napkin, I should find very uncomfortable. I soil them more than the Germans or Italians, as I make very little use of either spoon or fork.
The earliest fork known to have been made in England is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. It bears the crests of John Manners, 8th Earl of Rutland and his wife Frances, daughter of Edward Lord Montagu of Boughton [Bailey]. It is two-tined and squarish, made of silver, and bears the London hallmark for 1632-3 [Hayward]. In other parts of Europe, it became customary to make knives and forks in sets. Better quality knives of the sixteenth century came in sets of a dozen or more contained in a leather case, and included a fork to be used for serving [Hayward]. This case or "stocke" is what the inventories of Henry VIII refer to. Only very wealthy households would provide knives for guests. It was much more common for people to carry their own cutlery with them [Hayward, Bailey]. Even the inns were not equipped with tableware, expecting the traveller to provide their own [Bailey]. As forks became more common, sets of knife and fork, often with a sheath or case for the pair, came into use. Some travelers had a collapsible or folding set of knife, fork, and spoon [Giblin], much like today's camping tableware.
So, there are a variety of table forks available for use in the period of the SCA. The persona most likely to use a fork would be a rich, late period Italian, while the least likely would be an early period Englishman (or Saxon, or Briton). A poor persona would be very unlikely to use a fork at any time in the SCA period. The richer, later period, and closer to Italy a western European is, the more likely they are to use a fork at table.


Bailey, C.T.P. Knives and Forks. London: The Medici Society, 1927. Boger, Ann. Consuming Passions: The Art of Food and Drink. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1983.
Flanagan, Laurence. Ireland's Armada Legacy. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1988.
Giblin, James Cross. From Hand to Mouth. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987.
Gruber, Alain. Silverware. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1982.
Harrison, Molly. The Kitchen in History. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1972.
Hayward, J.F. English Cutlery, sixteenth to eighteenth century. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1956.
Henisch, Bridget Ann. Fast and Feast, Food in Medieval Society. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976.
Millikin, William M. "Early Christian Fork and Spoon", The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art, 44(Oct. 1957), 185+.

Webbed by Wolfgang Rotkopf <>


Cassava (Manihot esculenta), also called yuca, mogo, manioc, mandioca and kamoting kahoy, a woody shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) native to South America, is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy, tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. It differs from the similarly-spelled yucca, an unrelated fruit-bearing shrub in the Asparagaceae family. Cassava, when dried to a starchy, powdery (or pearly) extract is called tapioca, while its fermented, flaky version is named garri.

Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics.[1][2] Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for around 500 million people.[3] Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava.

Cassava root is a good source of carbohydrates, but a poor source of protein. A predominantly cassava root diet can cause protein-energy malnutrition.[4]

Cassava is classified as sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, Cassava contains anti-nutrition factors and toxins.[5] It must be properly prepared before consumption. Improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication and goiters, and may even cause ataxia or partial paralysis.[6] Nevertheless, farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves.[7] The more-toxic varieties of Cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security crop") in times of famine in some places.

Yuca frita

Tortitas de yuca

750 gr. de Yuca,
1/2 cucharadita de bicarbonato,
2 huevos,
1 cucharada de harina,
un poco de aceite,
un pizca de sal,

Se pone a cocer la yuca, pelada con una pizca de sal y 1/2 cucharadita de bicarbonato. Se cuela cuando aun esta caliente. Ya fría se le agregan los huevos y la harina. Se hacen y fríen en aceite caliente, doradas de ambos lados. Se comen con miel blanca y salen deliciosas.


De una a dos piezas de yuca de tamaño mediano.
Aceite para freír (preferentemente de girasol, pues no tiene fuerte sabor propio)
Sal a gusto

Pelar la yuca, cortarla en trozos de más o menos un dedo de largo sin partirlas por el centro y ponerlas a cocer en abundante agua SIN SAL. Una vez que el agua hierva, darle un "susto" (verter en la olla una o dos tazas de agua fría), añadir la sal y dejar cocer hasta que se ablande, sin romperse (probar con un tenedor). Una vez blandas, tirar el agua de cocción y dejarlas enfriar.Luego, partir los trozos en barritas de un dedo de grosor aproximadamente, retirando la hebra central que suele tener la yuca. Freír las barritas en aceite caliente, hasta que alcancen un color doradito. Espolvorear con sal a gusto y servir muy calientes


El "susto" con agua fría, suele ablandar notablemente más rápido la yuca. es mejor dejarla refrescar antes de proceder a freírla. Puede aprovecharse para esta receta un sobrante de yuca cocida del día anterior.

Sunday, December 30, 2012

Fruit Diet

In this interview, Dr. Gabriel Cousens discusses his personal and clinical experience on a 100% fruit diet based on his 40 years working as an MD and 28+ years as plant based only.

Doctor Sir Gabriel Cousens M.D., M.D.(H), D.D. (Doctor of Divinity), Diplomate of American Board of Integrative Holistic Medicine, Diplomate Ayurveda, visionary mystic, physician of the soul, and founder and director of The Tree of Life Rejuvenation Center and Tree of Life Foundation, is a leading author, world renowned spiritual teacher, expert in raw and living foods nutrition, and researcher on the healing of diabetes naturally, depression, manic depression, and some forms of psychosis (see mental wellness program).

Music courtesy of Beth Martens

For more info please visit

eat everyday

consuming milk does not improve bone health

Research Shows Dairy Does Not Improve Bone Health; Can Increase Childhood Obesity

WASHINGTON—A physicians’ group has petitioned the federal government to remove milk as a required food from the school lunch program. The nonprofit Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine calls milk an “ineffective placebo” and says a large body of research shows that consuming milk does not improve bone health and does not prevent bone fractures and injury in children and adults.

Milk is also the number one source of saturated fat in children’s diets.

“Milk doesn’t make children grow taller and stronger, but it can make them heavier,” says PCRM nutrition education director Susan Levin, M.S., R.D. “We are asking Congress and the USDA to put children’s interests above the interests of the dairy industry. Focusing on milk as the single most important source of calcium in children’s diets distracts schools and parents from foods that can actually build bones, like beans and leafy greens.”

The petition, filed July 19, asks the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue a report to Congress recommending an amendment to the National School Lunch Act. The amendment would exclude dairy milk as a required component of school lunches. Milk, the petition argues, does not improve bone health or reduce the risk of osteoporosis and can actually create other health risks, especially later in life.

“The promotion of milk ingestion in children is, in effect, the promotion of an ineffective placebo,” the petition states. It adds that other products, including calcium-enriched soymilk and rice milk, contain calcium but, unlike dairy milk, are low in sodium and free of animal protein that can cause calcium to be excreted from the body.

One in eight Americans is lactose intolerant. More than 1 million U.S. children struggle with milk allergies, the second most common food allergy.

The federal government spends more money on dairy than any other food item in the school lunch program.

Founded in 1985, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine is a nonprofit health organization that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research,and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research.

Queso roquefort

El roquefort es un queso azul francés de leche de oveja coagulada procedente de la región de Causses del Aveyron. La denominación de origen la obtuvo en 1925, en 1979 fue reconocido por la AOC y en 1996 por la AOP.

La zona en la que se recolecta la leche está situada alrededor de la ciudad de Roquefort-sur-Soulzon, cercana a la ciudad de Millau. Comprende los departamentos de LozèreAveyronTarnAudeHérault y Gard, mientras que la zona de afinado del queso queda circunscrita a la ciudad de Roquefort-sur-Soulzon.
Es un queso de leche de oveja de la raza Lacaune, la única capaz de adaptarse a las rigurosas condiciones climáticas que destacan por sus fuertes variaciones de temperatura. Es un queso de pasta verde (fromage à pâte persillée) con un peso medio de 2,5 kg.
La masa se guarda en forma de bolas en bodegas abiertas en las calizas de Roquefort-sur-Soulzon. Su período de degustación óptima se encuentra entre los meses de abril a octubre tras un afinado de cinco meses, lo que favorece el desarrollo de los mohos internos del géneroPenicillum; pero es un queso excelente en cualquier época del año.
Por su fuerte e intenso sabor y olor, es desagradable para algunas personas y excelente para otras. Generalmente los grandes catadores de aromas alimenticios lo califican como un queso de sabor exquisito.

Saturday, December 29, 2012

flan de Calabaza

This recipe for pumpkin flan (flan de Calabaza) is prepared using West Indian pumpkin, which is a type of squash. Don't let that fool you, it is a sweet, smooth and delicious custard treat.
You can easily change up this recipe for Halloween. Just substitute a pie pumpkin in place of the calabaza and use pumpkin pie spice in place of the cinnamon.

Prep Time: 20 minutes

Cook Time: 1 hour

Total Time: 1 hour, 20 minutes


  • 3/4 cup sugar
  • 1 1/2 pounds calabaza (peeled and cut into 1 inch chunks)
  • Water for boiling the calabaza
  • 4 eggs
  • 1 12-ounce can evaporated milk
  • 1 14-ounce can sweetened condensed milk
  • 1 tablespoon vanilla extract
  • 1 teaspoon cinnamon (ground)


  1. Preheat oven to 350 Fahrenheit.
  2. Melt the sugar slowly and carefully in a heavy saucepan over medium heat. Don't rush it. You want the sugar to caramelize, not burn.
  3. Once the sugar has completely melted, pour into a flan mold or 8 inch glass pie plate. Set aside.
  4. Place the cut up calabaza in a pot with enough water to cover. Bring to a boil and continue to boil until the calabaza is fork tender, about 20 minutes.
  5. Drain the calabaza in a colander. Then mash with a potato masher; or puree in a blender or food processor.
  6. In a mixing bowl, beat together the eggs, calabaza and the remaining ingredients. Mix well.
  7. Pour the mix into the prepared glass mold. Don't worry if the sugar is hard. It will melt when the flan is cooked.
  8. Place the glass dish inside a larger baking pan and fill the larger pan with boiling water until the water reaches halfway on the outside of the mold.
  9. Place on the center rack in the oven and bake for 1 hour. The center should be set firm.
  10. Allow to cool to room temperature. Flip upside down onto serving platter, garnish and serve.
Servings: Makes 8 servings.

Roast beef

typically use a rump roast when making roast beef. You can also use a round roast or a sirloin tip with these instructions. This slow roasting method at low heat is good for tougher cuts of beef; the lower heat prevents any gristle from getting too tough. This method should not be used with choice or prime grades of beef, or the more tender cuts, as slow cooking more delicate cuts will make them mushy.

Roast beef made this way is easy, relatively inexpensive, and you get great leftovers for roast beef sandwiches.

Roast Beef Recipe

Cook time: 3 hours
Add to shopping list
3 to 3 1/2 lbs (1.3 to 1.6 kg) of Boneless Rump Roast (pick an end cut with a layer of fat if you can)
Olive oil
8 slivers of garlic
Salt and pepper
You will need a meat thermometer

For the gravy:

Red wine, water, and or beef stock
corn starch
1 Start with the roast at room temperature (remove from refrigerator 1 hour before cooking - keep it wrapped). Preheat the oven to 375°F (190°C).

2 With a sharp knife make 8 small incisions around the roast. Place a sliver of garlic into each incision. Take a tablespoon or so of olive oil and spread all around the roast. Sprinkle around the roast with salt and pepper. Place the roast directly on an oven rack, fatty side up, with a drip pan on a rack beneath the roasting rack. This arrangement creates convection in the oven so that you do not need to turn the roast. The roast is placed fat side up so that as the fat melts it will bathe the entire roast in its juices.

3 Brown the roast at 375°F (190°C) for half an hour. Lower the heat to 225°F (107°C). The roast should take somewhere from 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 hours additionally to cook. The shape of the roast will affect the cooking time, by the way. So if your roast is on the long and narrow side, versus a more round shape, it may take less time to cook. So keep an eye on it. When the roast just starts to drip its juices and it is brown on the outside, check the temperature with a meat thermometer. Pull the roast from the oven when the inside temperature of the roast is 135° to 140°F (57°C to 60°C). Let the roast rest for at least 15 minutes, tented in aluminum foil to keep warm, before carving to serve.

To make the gravy:

Remove the dripping pan from the oven and place on the stove top at medium heat. Note that if you are pulling the roast out early, for rare or a medium rare level of doneness, you may not have a lot of drippings. Hopefully you will have some. If not, you may want to leave the roast in a little longer at even lower heat, 175°F, to ease some more drippings out of it. Add some water, red wine, or beef stock to the drippings to deglaze (loosen the drippings from the pan). Dissolve a tablespoon of cornstarch in a little water and add to the drip pan. Stir quickly while the gravy thickens to avoid lumping. You can add a little butter if there is not a lot of fat in the drippings. Add salt and pepper to taste.

Yield: Serves 4-6.

blue cheese

Roquefort is a type of blue cheese that is renowned throughout the world as the 'King of Cheeses, Cheese of Kings'. Named after the village of Roquefort in Aveyron, in the south of France, this blue cheese is especially infamous for its pungent smell and characteristic blue veins of mold. Equally fascinating is its unique production process. In fact, Roquefort falls under the 'protected designation of origin' (PDO) provided by the European Union Law.

The PDO defines that Roquefort must be produced following certain regulations, such as the use of milk from a particular breed of sheep, the location in which the cheese is matured, and the type of mold used for the maturation process. Hence, to guarantee the quality and purity of Roquefort, only milk from the Lacaune ewe is processed and cultured with a fungus calledPenicillium roqueforti and left to naturally mature in the Combalou caves in Roquefort village.

The story behind the origins of Roquefort blue cheese has been romanticized in a very old legend of the land. The legend begins with a young shepherd who was minding his flock of sheep in the hills of Roquefort when he suddenly sighted a beautiful maiden in the distance. Determined to find her, the shepherd left his dog to guard the sheep and hastily placed his lunch – bread and ewe's milk curds – in the nearby caves to keep cool.

Roquefort (US /ˈrkfərt/ or UK /rɒkˈfɔr/French: [ʁɔk.fɔʁ]; from Occitan ròcafòrt [ˌrɔkɔˈfɔrt]) is a sheep milk blue cheese from the south of France, and together with Bleu d'AuvergneStilton and Gorgonzola is one of the world's best known blue-cheeses.[2] Though similar cheeses are produced elsewhere, European law dictates that only those cheeses aged in the natural Combalou caves of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon may bear the name Roquefort, as it is a recognised geographical indication, or has a protected designation of origin. The cheese is white, tangy, crumbly and slightly moist, with distinctive veins of green mold. It has characteristic odor and flavor with a notable taste of butyric acid; the green veins provide a sharp tang. The overall flavor sensation begins slightly mild, then waxes sweet, then smoky, and fades to a salty finish. It has no rind; the exterior is edible and slightly salty. A typical wheel of Roquefort weighs between 2.5 and 3 kilograms (5.5 and 6.6 pounds), and is about 10 cm (4 inches) thick. Each kilogram of finished cheese requires about 4.5 litres (1.18 gallons) of milk to produce.

Blue cheese is a general classification of cow's milk, sheep's milk, or goat's milk cheeses that have had cultures of the mold Penicillium added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, blue-gray or blue-green mold, and carries a distinct smell, either from that or various specially cultivated bacteria. Some blue cheeses are injected with spores before the curds form and others have spores mixed in with the curds after they form. Blue cheeses are typically aged in a temperature-controlled environment such as a cave. Blue cheese can be eaten by itself or can be crumbled or melted over foods.
In the European Union many blue cheeses such as RoquefortGorgonzola and Blue Stilton carry a protected designation of origin, meaning they can bear the name only if they have been made in a particular region in a certain country. Similarly, individual countries have protections of their own such as France's Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée and Italy's Denominazione di Origine Protetta. Blue cheeses with no protected origin name are designated simply "blue cheese".
The characteristic flavor of blue cheeses tends to be sharp and salty. The smell of this food is due both to the mold and to types of bacteria encouraged to grow on the cheese: for example, the bacterium Brevibacterium linens is responsible for the smell of many blue cheeses,[1] as well as foot odor and other human body odors.